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China Best Sales Ce Approved Dq704A 70HP 4WD Agricultural Wheel Tractor with Tz08d Grapple Bucket Type Front End Loader with high quality

Product Description

CE approved DQ704A 70HP 4WD Agricultural Wheel Tractor with  TZ08D Grapple bucket  type Front end loader

Tractor Main Features and Advantages:

1.Equipped famous brand engine showing advanced capacity,low fuel consumption,high economic efficiency.
2. Streamlined appearance design, beautiful and generous.
3.Transmission Case adopt meshed shift and add the gearbox interlock device makes the operation more smoothly,reliable and easier.
4. Double action clutch with disc spring, perform steadily and easy to operate.
5. Fully hydraulic steering system greatly reduced driver’s work strength.
6. Wet disc brake device, reliable brake performance.
7. Separate injection of hydraulic oil, reliable to operate.
8. The lifter with force and position adjustment, with reliable lift.
9. Tractor PTO:
PTO in Double speed : 540/760 or 1000 r/min Optional, For high working efficiency.
PTO shaft of 6 or 8 spline Optional, adaptable for agricultural equipment of all over the world.
10. Big Chassis and Heavy-duty Rear axle for Durable Strong machine.
11. Full series light, ROPS,Sunshade/Canopy, Fan/Heater/Air-conditioned cabin are all available, for more comfortable driving environment. 

Tractor Main specificaiton and Technical parameters:

Model DQ704A
Drive type 4×4, Four wheel drive
Engine
Brand Yuchai or YTO
Type of engine 4 cylinder, in-line, water cool, natural aspirate
Model YT4B4-22
Bore x stroke 108 x 130mm
Displacement 4.76L
Ratio 18:1
Capacity of fuel tank(L) 125L
Engine power at rated speed (kw) 51.5
Rated speed (r/min) 2200
Fuel tank capacity (L) 125
Transmission
Clutch wet,dual-stage type
Gear box 8F+8R or 12F+12R shuttle gearshift
Gear box type Joggle cover type
Differential Close type, 4 planetary bevel gear
Tyre
Front tire 8.3-24 /9.5-20(optional)
Rear tire 11-32 /14.9-28(optional)
Working device
Three point linkage Rear, category II, force, position control
Hydraulic output device 2-Group (optional)
PTO type Semi-separate, 6 spline, 540/760rpm
Technical parameter
Steering Hydraulic steering
Brake type Wet, disc type
Overall size (LxWxH) (mm)   3593x1850x2568
Weight (kg) 2550
Wheel base(mm) 2040
Track base (mm) Front wheel 1250-1350
Rear wheel 1300-1500
The smallest clearance (mm) 370
Front tire 8.3-24
Rear tire 11.0-32
Optional Configuration
ROPS, Canopy(Sunshade), Front ballast, Rear ballast, Fan cabin, Heater cabin, Air-conditioning cabin, 2-Group Hydraulic output valve, Big R1 tire F9.5-20/R14.9-28, Paddy tires, Air brake, Swing draw bar
Loading Quantity/Container 1 set/20ft container, 3 sets/40HQ

DQ704A 70HP 4WD Tractor details show :

TZ08D CE Approval Euro quick hitch type Front end loader :

TZ08D Tractor Front end loader Main Features and Usage :

1.Used in Shoveling, stacking or short-distance transportation of loose material, like mud, sand, CZPT or garbage.
2.Featured with compact structure, flexibility, convenient operation and quick mounting and dismounting.
3.Hydraulic transmission is used,Featured with compact structure, flexibility, convenient operation and quick mounting and dismounting.
It uses hydraulic oil commonly with tractor. The hydraulic elements are standardized, convenient for operation and service.
4.Different work devices are optional, such as combined buckets(4 in 1 Bucket), grating cover bucket, pallet handler, timber grab and bale fork, etc,
so as to accomplish different kinds of work successfully.

TZ08D Front end loader Specifications:
 

Front End Loader Model Unit TZ08D
Matching Tractor hp 55-75
Rated Lifting Capacity kg 800
Max.Lifting height@Implement Pivot pin mm 3400
Max. Dumping height mm 2480
Overloading height mm 3220
Dumping distance mm 690
Ground Clearance @Arm pivot pin mm 1630
Digging depth mm 140
Bucket width (standard) mm 1600
Bucket Capacity m3 0.40
Max Tip in Angle degree ° 54
Dump Angle degree ° 58
Crowd angle @lowered lift arm degree ° 135
Rated Lifting Capacity kg 800

Front end loader details:

Advance Manufacutring Line:

Strictly Inspecting and Full Testing for ensuring high quality product:

Customlized Tractor Packing and Transporting service to meet different customers demand

Please Contact us if you have any demand for our Product

Best price will be quoted for you as soon as receive your Requirement !

Stiffness and Torsional Vibration of Spline-Couplings

In this paper, we describe some basic characteristics of spline-coupling and examine its torsional vibration behavior. We also explore the effect of spline misalignment on rotor-spline coupling. These results will assist in the design of improved spline-coupling systems for various applications. The results are presented in Table 1.
splineshaft

Stiffness of spline-coupling

The stiffness of a spline-coupling is a function of the meshing force between the splines in a rotor-spline coupling system and the static vibration displacement. The meshing force depends on the coupling parameters such as the transmitting torque and the spline thickness. It increases nonlinearly with the spline thickness.
A simplified spline-coupling model can be used to evaluate the load distribution of splines under vibration and transient loads. The axle spline sleeve is displaced a z-direction and a resistance moment T is applied to the outer face of the sleeve. This simple model can satisfy a wide range of engineering requirements but may suffer from complex loading conditions. Its asymmetric clearance may affect its engagement behavior and stress distribution patterns.
The results of the simulations show that the maximum vibration acceleration in both Figures 10 and 22 was 3.03 g/s. This results indicate that a misalignment in the circumferential direction increases the instantaneous impact. Asymmetry in the coupling geometry is also found in the meshing. The right-side spline’s teeth mesh tightly while those on the left side are misaligned.
Considering the spline-coupling geometry, a semi-analytical model is used to compute stiffness. This model is a simplified form of a classical spline-coupling model, with submatrices defining the shape and stiffness of the joint. As the design clearance is a known value, the stiffness of a spline-coupling system can be analyzed using the same formula.
The results of the simulations also show that the spline-coupling system can be modeled using MASTA, a high-level commercial CAE tool for transmission analysis. In this case, the spline segments were modeled as a series of spline segments with variable stiffness, which was calculated based on the initial gap between spline teeth. Then, the spline segments were modelled as a series of splines of increasing stiffness, accounting for different manufacturing variations. The resulting analysis of the spline-coupling geometry is compared to those of the finite-element approach.
Despite the high stiffness of a spline-coupling system, the contact status of the contact surfaces often changes. In addition, spline coupling affects the lateral vibration and deformation of the rotor. However, stiffness nonlinearity is not well studied in splined rotors because of the lack of a fully analytical model.
splineshaft

Characteristics of spline-coupling

The study of spline-coupling involves a number of design factors. These include weight, materials, and performance requirements. Weight is particularly important in the aeronautics field. Weight is often an issue for design engineers because materials have varying dimensional stability, weight, and durability. Additionally, space constraints and other configuration restrictions may require the use of spline-couplings in certain applications.
The main parameters to consider for any spline-coupling design are the maximum principal stress, the maldistribution factor, and the maximum tooth-bearing stress. The magnitude of each of these parameters must be smaller than or equal to the external spline diameter, in order to provide stability. The outer diameter of the spline must be at least 4 inches larger than the inner diameter of the spline.
Once the physical design is validated, the spline coupling knowledge base is created. This model is pre-programmed and stores the design parameter signals, including performance and manufacturing constraints. It then compares the parameter values to the design rule signals, and constructs a geometric representation of the spline coupling. A visual model is created from the input signals, and can be manipulated by changing different parameters and specifications.
The stiffness of a spline joint is another important parameter for determining the spline-coupling stiffness. The stiffness distribution of the spline joint affects the rotor’s lateral vibration and deformation. A finite element method is a useful technique for obtaining lateral stiffness of spline joints. This method involves many mesh refinements and requires a high computational cost.
The diameter of the spline-coupling must be large enough to transmit the torque. A spline with a larger diameter may have greater torque-transmitting capacity because it has a smaller circumference. However, the larger diameter of a spline is thinner than the shaft, and the latter may be more suitable if the torque is spread over a greater number of teeth.
Spline-couplings are classified according to their tooth profile along the axial and radial directions. The radial and axial tooth profiles affect the component’s behavior and wear damage. Splines with a crowned tooth profile are prone to angular misalignment. Typically, these spline-couplings are oversized to ensure durability and safety.

Stiffness of spline-coupling in torsional vibration analysis

This article presents a general framework for the study of torsional vibration caused by the stiffness of spline-couplings in aero-engines. It is based on a previous study on spline-couplings. It is characterized by the following 3 factors: bending stiffness, total flexibility, and tangential stiffness. The first criterion is the equivalent diameter of external and internal splines. Both the spline-coupling stiffness and the displacement of splines are evaluated by using the derivative of the total flexibility.
The stiffness of a spline joint can vary based on the distribution of load along the spline. Variables affecting the stiffness of spline joints include the torque level, tooth indexing errors, and misalignment. To explore the effects of these variables, an analytical formula is developed. The method is applicable for various kinds of spline joints, such as splines with multiple components.
Despite the difficulty of calculating spline-coupling stiffness, it is possible to model the contact between the teeth of the shaft and the hub using an analytical approach. This approach helps in determining key magnitudes of coupling operation such as contact peak pressures, reaction moments, and angular momentum. This approach allows for accurate results for spline-couplings and is suitable for both torsional vibration and structural vibration analysis.
The stiffness of spline-coupling is commonly assumed to be rigid in dynamic models. However, various dynamic phenomena associated with spline joints must be captured in high-fidelity drivetrain models. To accomplish this, a general analytical stiffness formulation is proposed based on a semi-analytical spline load distribution model. The resulting stiffness matrix contains radial and tilting stiffness values as well as torsional stiffness. The analysis is further simplified with the blockwise inversion method.
It is essential to consider the torsional vibration of a power transmission system before selecting the coupling. An accurate analysis of torsional vibration is crucial for coupling safety. This article also discusses case studies of spline shaft wear and torsionally-induced failures. The discussion will conclude with the development of a robust and efficient method to simulate these problems in real-life scenarios.
splineshaft

Effect of spline misalignment on rotor-spline coupling

In this study, the effect of spline misalignment in rotor-spline coupling is investigated. The stability boundary and mechanism of rotor instability are analyzed. We find that the meshing force of a misaligned spline coupling increases nonlinearly with spline thickness. The results demonstrate that the misalignment is responsible for the instability of the rotor-spline coupling system.
An intentional spline misalignment is introduced to achieve an interference fit and zero backlash condition. This leads to uneven load distribution among the spline teeth. A further spline misalignment of 50um can result in rotor-spline coupling failure. The maximum tensile root stress shifted to the left under this condition.
Positive spline misalignment increases the gear mesh misalignment. Conversely, negative spline misalignment has no effect. The right-handed spline misalignment is opposite to the helix hand. The high contact area is moved from the center to the left side. In both cases, gear mesh is misaligned due to deflection and tilting of the gear under load.
This variation of the tooth surface is measured as the change in clearance in the transverse plain. The radial and axial clearance values are the same, while the difference between the 2 is less. In addition to the frictional force, the axial clearance of the splines is the same, which increases the gear mesh misalignment. Hence, the same procedure can be used to determine the frictional force of a rotor-spline coupling.
Gear mesh misalignment influences spline-rotor coupling performance. This misalignment changes the distribution of the gear mesh and alters contact and bending stresses. Therefore, it is essential to understand the effects of misalignment in spline couplings. Using a simplified system of helical gear pair, Hong et al. examined the load distribution along the tooth interface of the spline. This misalignment caused the flank contact pattern to change. The misaligned teeth exhibited deflection under load and developed a tilting moment on the gear.
The effect of spline misalignment in rotor-spline couplings is minimized by using a mechanism that reduces backlash. The mechanism comprises cooperably splined male and female members. One member is formed by 2 coaxially aligned splined segments with end surfaces shaped to engage in sliding relationship. The connecting device applies axial loads to these segments, causing them to rotate relative to 1 another.

China Best Sales Ce Approved Dq704A 70HP 4WD Agricultural Wheel Tractor with Tz08d Grapple Bucket Type Front End Loader     with high qualityChina Best Sales Ce Approved Dq704A 70HP 4WD Agricultural Wheel Tractor with Tz08d Grapple Bucket Type Front End Loader     with high quality

China manufacturer Europe CE Approved Dq904 90HP 4WD Agriculture Wheel Farm Tractor with Tz10d Standard Bucket Front End Loader near me shop

Product Description

CE Approved DQ904 90HP 4WD Agriculture wheel farm tractor with TZ10D Standard bucket Front end loader

DQ904 90HP 4WD Tractor Main Features and Advantages:
1.Equipped famous brand engine showing advanced capacity,low fuel consumption,high economic efficiency.
2. Streamlined appearance design, beautiful and generous.
3.Transmission Case adopt meshed shift and add the gearbox interlock device makes the operation more smoothly,reliable and easier.
4. Double action clutch with disc spring, perform steadily and easy to operate.
5. Fully hydraulic steering system greatly reduced driver’s work strength.
6. Wet disc brake device, reliable brake performance.
7. Separate injection of hydraulic oil, reliable to operate.
8. The lifter with force and position adjustment, with reliable lift.
9. Tractor PTO:
PTO in Double speed : 540/760r/min Optional, For high working efficiency.
PTO shaft of 6 or 8 spline Optional, adaptable for agricultural equipment of all over the world.
10. Big Chassis and Heavy-duty Rear axle for Durable Strong machine.
11. Full series light, ROPS,Sunshade/Canopy, Fan/Heater/Air-conditioned cabin are all available, for more comfortable driving environment. 

DQ904 90HP 4WD Tractor Main specificaiton and Technical parameters:

Model DQ900 DQ904 DQ950 DQ954
Drive type  4×2 4×4 4×2 4×4
Engine
Engine type YTO or CZPT brand, 4 or 6 cylinder diesel engine
Capacity of fuel tank(L) 150 150 150 150
Rated speed (r/min) 2300
Engine power at rated speed(kw/hp) 66.2kw/90HP 69.8kw/95HP
Transmission
Clutch Dry, dual-stage type
PTO Speed (rpm) 540/1000 or 760/1000
Gearshift 8F+4R/16F+8R(optional)/8F+8R(optional)
Hydraulic system
Hydraulic output valve 2-Group (optional)
Three point linkage 
Category of 3-point link Category II
Lifting force (at point of 610mm)KN >15 >16 >15 >16
Technical parameter
Dimension (LxWxH) (mm) 4593x2050x2810
Wheel base(mm) 2362 2195 2362 2195
Track base(mm) front wheel 1485 1610 1485 1610
Track base(mm) rear wheel 1620
The smallest clearance(mm) 476 379 476 379
Front tyre 6.5-20 11.2-24 6.5-20 11.2-24
Rear tyre 16.9-34(common)/18.4-30(optional)
Optional Configurations
Common cabin with Fan; Heater cabin; AC cabin; ROPS; Canopy (Sunshade); 8F+8R shuttle gearshift, 16F+4R creeper gearshift, 2-Group Hydraulic output valve; Front ballast, Rear ballast; Paddy tire, 18.4-30 big rear tire, 6 cylinder diesel engine, Heavy-duty rear, Air brake, Swing draw bar
Loading Quantity/40HC 3 Sets in Nude packing for CBU shipping

DQ904 90HP 4WD Tractor details  show :

High quality DQ904 90HP 4WD Tractor with TZ10D Euro Quick hitch Standard bucket Front end loader  :

Also have  4in1 bucket Front end loader and various attachments for choose:

High quality Tractor and Front end loader have  ISO,CE, PVOC COC, CO, OECD, etc certificates:


Tractor and Front end loader Packing and Loading container for Delivering goods :

Perfect after-sale service for both Distributors and Private customers:

Tip quality DQ904 90HP 4WD Tractor and Front end loader from Yourchiance Machiner :

Best price will be quoted for you as soon as receive your Requirement !

What Are the Advantages of a Splined Shaft?

If you are looking for the right splined shaft for your machine, you should know a few important things. First, what type of material should be used? Stainless steel is usually the most appropriate choice, because of its ability to offer low noise and fatigue failure. Secondly, it can be machined using a slotting or shaping machine. Lastly, it will ensure smooth motion. So, what are the advantages of a splined shaft?
Stainless steel is the best material for splined shafts

When choosing a splined shaft, you should consider its hardness, quality, and finish. Stainless steel has superior corrosion and wear resistance. Carbon steel is another good material for splined shafts. Carbon steel has a shallow carbon content (about 1.7%), which makes it more malleable and helps ensure smooth motion. But if you’re not willing to spend the money on stainless steel, consider other options.
There are 2 main types of splines: parallel splines and crowned splines. Involute splines have parallel grooves and allow linear and rotary motion. Helical splines have involute teeth and are oriented at an angle. This type allows for many teeth on the shaft and minimizes the stress concentration in the stationary joint.
Large evenly spaced splines are widely used in hydraulic systems, drivetrains, and machine tools. They are typically made from carbon steel (CR10) and stainless steel (AISI 304). This material is durable and meets the requirements of ISO 14-B, formerly DIN 5463-B. Splined shafts are typically made of stainless steel or C45 steel, though there are many other materials available.
Stainless steel is the best material for a splined shaft. This metal is also incredibly affordable. In most cases, stainless steel is the best choice for these shafts because it offers the best corrosion resistance. There are many different types of splined shafts, and each 1 is suited for a particular application. There are also many different types of stainless steel, so choose stainless steel if you want the best quality.
For those looking for high-quality splined shafts, CZPT Spline Shafts offer many benefits. They can reduce costs, improve positional accuracy, and reduce friction. With the CZPT TFE coating, splined shafts can reduce energy and heat buildup, and extend the life of your products. And, they’re easy to install – all you need to do is install them.
splineshaft

They provide low noise, low wear and fatigue failure

The splines in a splined shaft are composed of 2 main parts: the spline root fillet and the spline relief. The spline root fillet is the most critical part, because fatigue failure starts there and propagates to the relief. The spline relief is more susceptible to fatigue failure because of its involute tooth shape, which offers a lower stress to the shaft and has a smaller area of contact.
The fatigue life of splined shafts is determined by measuring the S-N curve. This is also known as the Wohler curve, and it is the relationship between stress amplitude and number of cycles. It depends on the material, geometry and way of loading. It can be obtained from a physical test on a uniform material specimen under a constant amplitude load. Approximations for low-alloy steel parts can be made using a lower-alloy steel material.
Splined shafts provide low noise, minimal wear and fatigue failure. However, some mechanical transmission elements need to be removed from the shaft during assembly and manufacturing processes. The shafts must still be capable of relative axial movement for functional purposes. As such, good spline joints are essential to high-quality torque transmission, minimal backlash, and low noise. The major failure modes of spline shafts include fretting corrosion, tooth breakage, and fatigue failure.
The outer disc carrier spline is susceptible to tensile stress and fatigue failure. High customer demands for low noise and low wear and fatigue failure makes splined shafts an excellent choice. A fractured spline gear coupling was received for analysis. It was installed near the top of a filter shaft and inserted into the gearbox motor. The service history was unknown. The fractured spline gear coupling had longitudinally cracked and arrested at the termination of the spline gear teeth. The spline gear teeth also exhibited wear and deformation.
A new spline coupling method detects fault propagation in hollow cylindrical splined shafts. A spline coupling is fabricated using an AE method with the spline section unrolled into a metal plate of the same thickness as the cylinder wall. In addition, the spline coupling is misaligned, which puts significant concentration on the spline teeth. This further accelerates the rate of fretting fatigue and wear.
A spline joint should be lubricated after 25 hours of operation. Frequent lubrication can increase maintenance costs and cause downtime. Moreover, the lubricant may retain abrasive particles at the interfaces. In some cases, lubricants can even cause misalignment, leading to premature failure. So, the lubrication of a spline coupling is vital in ensuring proper functioning of the shaft.
The design of a spline coupling can be optimized to enhance its wear resistance and reliability. Surface treatments, loads, and rotation affect the friction properties of a spline coupling. In addition, a finite element method was developed to predict wear of a floating spline coupling. This method is feasible and provides a reliable basis for predicting the wear and fatigue life of a spline coupling.
splineshaft

They can be machined using a slotting or shaping machine

Machines can be used to shape splined shafts in a variety of industries. They are useful in many applications, including gearboxes, braking systems, and axles. A slotted shaft can be manipulated in several ways, including hobbling, broaching, and slotting. In addition to shaping, splines are also useful in reducing bar diameter.
When using a slotting or shaping machine, the workpiece is held against a pedestal that has a uniform thickness. The machine is equipped with a stand column and limiting column (Figure 1), each positioned perpendicular to the upper surface of the pedestal. The limiting column axis is located on the same line as the stand column. During the slotting or shaping process, the tool is fed in and out until the desired space is achieved.
One process involves cutting splines into a shaft. Straddle milling, spline shaping, and spline cutting are 2 common processes used to create splined shafts. Straddle milling involves a fixed indexing fixture that holds the shaft steady, while rotating milling cutters cut the groove in the length of the shaft. Several passes are required to ensure uniformity throughout the spline.
Splines are a type of gear. The ridges or teeth on the drive shaft mesh with grooves in the mating piece. A splined shaft allows the transmission of torque to a mate piece while maximizing the power transfer. Splines are used in heavy vehicles, construction, agriculture, and massive earthmoving machinery. Splines are used in virtually every type of rotary motion, from axles to transmission systems. They also offer better fatigue life and reliability.
Slotting or shaping machines can also be used to shape splined shafts. Slotting machines are often used to machine splined shafts, because it is easier to make them with these machines. Using a slotting or shaping machine can result in splined shafts of different sizes. It is important to follow a set of spline standards to ensure your parts are manufactured to the highest standards.
A milling machine is another option for producing splined shafts. A spline shaft can be set up between 2 centers in an indexing fixture. Two side milling cutters are mounted on an arbor and a spacer and shims are inserted between them. The arbor and cutters are then mounted to a milling machine spindle. To make sure the cutters center themselves over the splined shaft, an adjustment must be made to the spindle of the machine.
The machining process is very different for internal and external splines. External splines can be broached, shaped, milled, or hobbed, while internal splines cannot. These machines use hard alloy, but they are not as good for internal splines. A machine with a slotting mechanism is necessary for these operations.

China manufacturer Europe CE Approved Dq904 90HP 4WD Agriculture Wheel Farm Tractor with Tz10d Standard Bucket Front End Loader     near me shop China manufacturer Europe CE Approved Dq904 90HP 4WD Agriculture Wheel Farm Tractor with Tz10d Standard Bucket Front End Loader     near me shop

China Hot selling CZPT 6ton 3cbm Rock Bucket Wheel Loader Lw600kn Compact Tractor Front End Loader with Best Sales

Product Description

MAIN FEATURES

Model Characteristics

LW600KN wheel loader is rooted in the customers’ needs and based on the international R&D platform to thoroughly improve the product reliability, economy, comfort, efficiency, maintenance convenience, and adaptability and is a preferential machinery product for the production organization in the fields of ports, mines, engineering constructions, and logistics.

 

The super-strong heavy-duty structural parts, enhanced drive system, and globally supplied critical parts can carry the torsion and impact loads under diversified working conditions.

The high-efficiency electronic control countershaft transmission matches perfectly with the engine. The optimally designed working device equipped features automatic leveling, pilot control, and high operation efficiency.

With wide scope design, this machine is applicable for diversified working environments, including high altitude, heavy dust, high temperature, and low temperature. The diversified attachments can be equipped to meet the needs of diversified working conditions.

The centralized pressure measurement, “one-stop” maintenance, easily cleanable single-row radiator with large fin spacing, and extended replace ment interval of hydraulic oil realize short shutdown time and low maintenance cost.

The globalized full-enclosed and slightly pressurized cab with heating and air conditioning system features a broad vision and enlarges the interior space by 20%. The multi-direction adjustable control box and steering column and the scientific ergonomic design bring about a first-class driving/riding experience.

 

Engine

The three-stage air filter is designed especially for severe working environment of construction machinery industry.

The multi-stage fuel filter ensures good fuel adaptability and guarantees cleanliness of engine system.

 

Heavy-duty electronic control countershaft transmission

The material and heat treatment for pump shaft connecting spline are improved and the forced lubrication is applied to prolong the life by 20%.

 

Enhanced drive axle

With optimized materials and processes, the main reducer and wheel reducer passed the industry’s leading reliabilitylife test of >900,000 cycles.

The axle housing is design optimized and the cross section of the housing is enlarged to increase the carrying capacity and bending resistance by 10%.

The optional maintenance-free wet brake axle improves the braking reliability.

 

Structural parts

The super-strong heavy-duty design eliminates partial weaknesses and meets the needs under diversified severe operating conditions with fatigue destruction test of millions of cycles.

The robot welding process ensures stable weld quality and high fusion depth.

 

Hydraulic system

The double-pump confluence/distribution technology is applied so that the steering pump preferentially supplies oil to the steering system. When no steering operation is made, the oil flow of the steering pump completely flows into the working hydraulic system to reduce the displacement of working pump, improve the reliability of hydraulic units, and at the same time reduce the generated heat of hydraulic system

and realize energy-conservation.

The automatic unloading function is provided to reduce the energy loss of high pressure overflow of the hydraulic system, increase the traction force by 15% under combination operation, and remarkably improve the working efficiency.

 

Working device

The high-efficiency linkage system features fast motions, high breakout force, and powerful lifting capacity.

With optimal shape design, the bucket features low insertion resistance and high fullness rate.

The CZPT plates are additionally installed for the standard bucket and the rock bucket to prevent the splashing of material.

 

Comfortable operations

The full-hydraulic pilot controlled working device and steering system features handy control and reduces the working strength of the driver.

The steering gear, seat, and control box are freely adjustable depending on the operator’s needs. 

 The strong human-machine interactivity for the pedals and controls mitigates the fatigue during long-time operations.

The combination (flexible mode first and rigid mode second) of hydraulic flexible mode and mechanical rigid mode is adopted for the steering limits, in order to relieve the impact and ensure driving/riding comfort.

 

Comfortable driving environment

Well insulated against noise, dust, and heat, the full-enclosed integral framework cab creates a healthy driving environment.

The panoramic glasses and super-large spherical rearview mirrors ensure a broad vision and easy and safe operations.

The utilizable space of the cab is enlarged by 20% and the seats are backward inclinable in large angle to bring about more comfort. 

The slightly pressurized A/C system with filtration function provides the operator with a comfortable working environment.

 The graceful and elegant instruments bring about a car-style visual enjoyment.

Reversing camera: The optional reversing camera system realizes higher reversing safety.

 

Operation economy

The working device is design optimized to reduce the unnecessary consumption and improve the power utilization rate.

The high energy-conservation and high-efficiency hydraulic system is applied to realize higher fuel utilization efficiency and more powerful working capacity.

The replacement interval is extend ed from 250h to 500h for the engine oil and is extended to 2,000h for the hydraulic oil to shorten the shut down time and reduce the mainte nance cost. In addition, the replace ment volume of hydraulic oil is reduced by 20% compared with the like models.

 

Environment adaptability

Normal operation under environment temperature of -35ºC~+45ºC. 

No power drop under altitude of up to 3,000m

A high-flow ventilator is installed for various systems to meet the operation needs under heavily dusty environment.

Convenient maintenances

The engine hood adopts upturning large door design in large opening angle to ease the daily maintenances.

The “one-stop” maintenance can be fulfilled for the engine oil filter, diesel filter, transmission and torque converter filters, and air filter. 

The centralized pressure measurement and the centralized lubricating for the hinges ease the services and maintenances.

The externally arranged booster cylinder, air reservoir, and A/C achieve reasonable structural arrangement and easy maintenances.

parameters

Item Specification Unit
Rated operating load 6000 kg
Bucket capacity 3.0~4.5
Machine weight 20000±300 kg
Dump clearance at maximum lift 3170~3750 mm
Reach at maximum lift 1200~1360 mm
Wheel base 3350 mm
Tread 2265 mm
Max.breakout force 205 kN
Hydraulic cycle time-raise 5.9 s
Total hydraulic cycle time 10.9 s
Min. turning radius over tyres 6005 mm
Articulation angle 38 °
Gradeability 28 °
Tyre size 23.5-25  
Overall machine dimension L×W×H 8505×3220×3515  
Rated Power 178 Kw
Travel speed i-gear(F/R) 6/6 km/h
ii-gear(F/R) 11/11  
iii-gear(F/R) 22/22  
IV-gear(F/R) 34/34 km/h
No further information of sample contents, product structure and configuration parameters updates.There maybe some difference bet

How to Calculate Stiffness, Centering Force, Wear and Fatigue Failure of Spline Couplings

There are various types of spline couplings. These couplings have several important properties. These properties are: Stiffness, Involute splines, Misalignment, Wear and fatigue failure. To understand how these characteristics relate to spline couplings, read this article. It will give you the necessary knowledge to determine which type of coupling best suits your needs. Keeping in mind that spline couplings are usually spherical in shape, they are made of steel.
splineshaft

Involute splines

An effective side interference condition minimizes gear misalignment. When 2 splines are coupled with no spline misalignment, the maximum tensile root stress shifts to the left by 5 mm. A linear lead variation, which results from multiple connections along the length of the spline contact, increases the effective clearance or interference by a given percentage. This type of misalignment is undesirable for coupling high-speed equipment.
Involute splines are often used in gearboxes. These splines transmit high torque, and are better able to distribute load among multiple teeth throughout the coupling circumference. The involute profile and lead errors are related to the spacing between spline teeth and keyways. For coupling applications, industry practices use splines with 25 to 50-percent of spline teeth engaged. This load distribution is more uniform than that of conventional single-key couplings.
To determine the optimal tooth engagement for an involved spline coupling, Xiangzhen Xue and colleagues used a computer model to simulate the stress applied to the splines. The results from this study showed that a “permissible” Ruiz parameter should be used in coupling. By predicting the amount of wear and tear on a crowned spline, the researchers could accurately predict how much damage the components will sustain during the coupling process.
There are several ways to determine the optimal pressure angle for an involute spline. Involute splines are commonly measured using a pressure angle of 30 degrees. Similar to gears, involute splines are typically tested through a measurement over pins. This involves inserting specific-sized wires between gear teeth and measuring the distance between them. This method can tell whether the gear has a proper tooth profile.
The spline system shown in Figure 1 illustrates a vibration model. This simulation allows the user to understand how involute splines are used in coupling. The vibration model shows 4 concentrated mass blocks that represent the prime mover, the internal spline, and the load. It is important to note that the meshing deformation function represents the forces acting on these 3 components.
splineshaft

Stiffness of coupling

The calculation of stiffness of a spline coupling involves the measurement of its tooth engagement. In the following, we analyze the stiffness of a spline coupling with various types of teeth using 2 different methods. Direct inversion and blockwise inversion both reduce CPU time for stiffness calculation. However, they require evaluation submatrices. Here, we discuss the differences between these 2 methods.
The analytical model for spline couplings is derived in the second section. In the third section, the calculation process is explained in detail. We then validate this model against the FE method. Finally, we discuss the influence of stiffness nonlinearity on the rotor dynamics. Finally, we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each method. We present a simple yet effective method for estimating the lateral stiffness of spline couplings.
The numerical calculation of the spline coupling is based on the semi-analytical spline load distribution model. This method involves refined contact grids and updating the compliance matrix at each iteration. Hence, it consumes significant computational time. Further, it is difficult to apply this method to the dynamic analysis of a rotor. This method has its own limitations and should be used only when the spline coupling is fully investigated.
The meshing force is the force generated by a misaligned spline coupling. It is related to the spline thickness and the transmitting torque of the rotor. The meshing force is also related to the dynamic vibration displacement. The result obtained from the meshing force analysis is given in Figures 7, 8, and 9.
The analysis presented in this paper aims to investigate the stiffness of spline couplings with a misaligned spline. Although the results of previous studies were accurate, some issues remained. For example, the misalignment of the spline may cause contact damages. The aim of this article is to investigate the problems associated with misaligned spline couplings and propose an analytical approach for estimating the contact pressure in a spline connection. We also compare our results to those obtained by pure numerical approaches.

Misalignment

To determine the centering force, the effective pressure angle must be known. Using the effective pressure angle, the centering force is calculated based on the maximum axial and radial loads and updated Dudley misalignment factors. The centering force is the maximum axial force that can be transmitted by friction. Several published misalignment factors are also included in the calculation. A new method is presented in this paper that considers the cam effect in the normal force.
In this new method, the stiffness along the spline joint can be integrated to obtain a global stiffness that is applicable to torsional vibration analysis. The stiffness of bearings can also be calculated at given levels of misalignment, allowing for accurate estimation of bearing dimensions. It is advisable to check the stiffness of bearings at all times to ensure that they are properly sized and aligned.
A misalignment in a spline coupling can result in wear or even failure. This is caused by an incorrectly aligned pitch profile. This problem is often overlooked, as the teeth are in contact throughout the involute profile. This causes the load to not be evenly distributed along the contact line. Consequently, it is important to consider the effect of misalignment on the contact force on the teeth of the spline coupling.
The centre of the male spline in Figure 2 is superposed on the female spline. The alignment meshing distances are also identical. Hence, the meshing force curves will change according to the dynamic vibration displacement. It is necessary to know the parameters of a spline coupling before implementing it. In this paper, the model for misalignment is presented for spline couplings and the related parameters.
Using a self-made spline coupling test rig, the effects of misalignment on a spline coupling are studied. In contrast to the typical spline coupling, misalignment in a spline coupling causes fretting wear at a specific position on the tooth surface. This is a leading cause of failure in these types of couplings.
splineshaft

Wear and fatigue failure

The failure of a spline coupling due to wear and fatigue is determined by the first occurrence of tooth wear and shaft misalignment. Standard design methods do not account for wear damage and assess the fatigue life with big approximations. Experimental investigations have been conducted to assess wear and fatigue damage in spline couplings. The tests were conducted on a dedicated test rig and special device connected to a standard fatigue machine. The working parameters such as torque, misalignment angle, and axial distance have been varied in order to measure fatigue damage. Over dimensioning has also been assessed.
During fatigue and wear, mechanical sliding takes place between the external and internal splines and results in catastrophic failure. The lack of literature on the wear and fatigue of spline couplings in aero-engines may be due to the lack of data on the coupling’s application. Wear and fatigue failure in splines depends on a number of factors, including the material pair, geometry, and lubrication conditions.
The analysis of spline couplings shows that over-dimensioning is common and leads to different damages in the system. Some of the major damages are wear, fretting, corrosion, and teeth fatigue. Noise problems have also been observed in industrial settings. However, it is difficult to evaluate the contact behavior of spline couplings, and numerical simulations are often hampered by the use of specific codes and the boundary element method.
The failure of a spline gear coupling was caused by fatigue, and the fracture initiated at the bottom corner radius of the keyway. The keyway and splines had been overloaded beyond their yield strength, and significant yielding was observed in the spline gear teeth. A fracture ring of non-standard alloy steel exhibited a sharp corner radius, which was a significant stress raiser.
Several components were studied to determine their life span. These components include the spline shaft, the sealing bolt, and the graphite ring. Each of these components has its own set of design parameters. However, there are similarities in the distributions of these components. Wear and fatigue failure of spline couplings can be attributed to a combination of the 3 factors. A failure mode is often defined as a non-linear distribution of stresses and strains.

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